Big news was shared early last Sunday at the American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI) Annual Meeting in Houston, TX on a new therapy against peanut allergies. A research team from Jaffe Food Allergy Institute at Kravis Children’s Hospital at Mount Sinai discussed the accomplishments of their studies on the peanut allergy patch.
The team introduced Viaskin® Peanut, an epicutaneous immunotherapy (EPIT/ allergy patch), to encourage peanut tolerance via patches containing micro doses of peanut proteins. The epidermis is potentially ideal for allergen administration, as it is a safer route of allergen absorption in lieu of direct exposure to the vascularized circulatory system. Another factor that makes it prime location are the presence of Langerhans cells that specialize in antigen presentation. These act as “mediators of tolerance” for the immune system in the skin, and can be used in the favor of building peanut protein tolerances.
The year long therapy trial consisted of 221 peanut-allergic individuals who were treated with patches consisting of a various doses of peanut protein. All patients were tested at the beginning of the study to measure their initial peanut protein tolerance. After administering doses of the protein, ranging from 50 micrograms to 250 micrograms, their baseline test results were then compared to their tolerance levels at the end of the study.
Results showed that greater than 95% of the patients complied to the study (1% dropping out due to adverse affects) , and children treated with 250 microgram patches experienced a 19-fold increase in tolerance to peanut allergies! This means that at the end of the study they were able to tolerate 1 gram of peanut protein, the equivalent of 4 peanuts.
Viaskin® Peanut is the first of it’s kind for combating food allergies, but initial results hint that it could be the first food allergy patch for other food allergies as well (seafood, tree nuts, soy, etc.). Beyond the patch itself, this study can also help us better understand how the body builds a defense for allergens. Understanding the mechanism is critical, particularly since food allergies are complex and usually require food avoidance, low dose immunotherapy or special diets. They cannot treated like environmental allergies such as pet dander allergies or pollen allergies, which can be treated with allergy shots, pills or sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT).
This EPIT therapy is promising for parents, patients, and practitioners. Food allergies are particularly challenging for parents who must constantly watch their younger children’s diets, which can be strained in social or school related situations. Food allergies also affect nutrient intake, which can lead to potential growth hindrance and nutrient deficiency, as reported by the Journal of Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Practitioners may soon be able to give more options to patients, providing relief in fighting potentially lethal peanut allergies. We hope to see more advancement in this study, and see it become an accessible form of immunotherapy on the pharmacy shelves.
Author: R. Power