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Allergy Research


Posted by kevvyg on Wednesday, August 27, 2014
In the last two years, there has been an incredible amount of research into what is called the human microbiome - the wide variety of microorganisms that live on and in us. It is still a difficult concept for many of us to wrap our heads around, but research has shown that the cells of all the microbes on and inside of us actually outnumber the total cells that make up the human body and by a pretty wide margin. Only recently have we started to consider the larger roles these tiny cohabitants play in our lives and in our health. Last year I wrote a piece about fungi in the lungs and how the types and numbers of them found in those with asthma vs. control patients varied. More recently, a research piece published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) highlights the link between bacteria in the gut and food allergies.

Mice, Peanut Allergies & Gut Bacteria - Probiotic Solution to Food Sensitivities?Researchers started by examining the role gut bacteria play in food sensitivities and food allergies in two groups of mice. Playing on the "hygiene hypothesis" researchers put together one group of mice that were raised in a sterile environment. In the other group, the mice were given a large dose of antibiotics at just two weeks of age. After being given peanut extract, both groups were observed, and from here researchers began introduction specific groups of bacteria to see if they had any effect on the allergic response. Specifically, Bacteroides and Clostridia bacteria groups were the focus, two types that are commonly found in wild mice.

The results were very interesting. First, mice that were given antibiotics showed a high sensitivity to the peanut extract. Antibiotics given early in life have recently been shown to be linked to a myriad Clostridia Bacteria Introduced Into Gut Reduced Peanut Sensitivityof problems later on, including things like the development of allergies and asthma. Of the second group, the reaction to the peanut allergen was even more severe with some showing signs of anaphylaxis. While the introducing Bacteroides into the gut of mice had little effect, Clostridia was another story.

In both groups of mice, the introduction of Clostridia bacteria into the mice resulted in reduced allergic responses to the peanut allergen. This is extremely important for two reasons. First, it shows a link between specific gut bacteria and the development of allergies, again highlighting the link between the microbiome and the health of the animal. Second, these results point toward the potential of treating food allergies with the use of probiotics.

This study also refines the "hygiene theory" somewhat. While traditionally, it was suggested that a lack of exposure to germs and microbes early on could lead to the immune system overreacting to innocuous substances like dust mites, peanuts, or pollen, these results would suggest that a more sterile environment or perhaps even an overuse of antibiotics could lead to less diverse and less numerous gut bacteria, which would in turn be setting the stage for allergen sensitivity.

While the notion of treating allergies or food sensitivities with probiotics are still many years away, this latest research solidifies the link between gut bacteria and allergies. More importantly, it opens the door for potentially novel, new treatments of allergies, asthma and possibly other allergic diseases.

To read the abstract of this study.

Author: KevvyG

Posted by kevvyg on Thursday, August 21, 2014
Tree nut and peanut allergies are some of the most common as well as some of the most commonly discussed food allergies. Without fail, every year we hear at least a handful of stories about those who are severely allergic coming in contact with and ultimately dying from food allergies. The standard way most deal with food allergies is with allergy shots (or another type of desensitization procedure) or strict avoidance. Yet neither is fullproof. A team of researchers at the U.S. Department of Agriculture are approaching this problem by not changing the person dealing with allergies but instead by changing the food.

Allergy-Free Cashews? Maybe!Allergy-free peanuts? While it may seem a bit farfetched, this is just what they are working on. Started with a cashew extract (oil), researchers are treating the proteins found in the oil with heat and sodium sulfite. You may recognize sodium sulfite, as it's a preservative commonly found in a variety of foods. What this process does is change the molecular look of reaction-causing protein in the cashew, making it more difficult for immunoglobin (IgE - the antibody that kicks off your body's response, aka, allergic reaction) to recognize and bind with the protein.

Test results showed that when mixing unmodified and modified cashew proteins with the IgE of a nut allergic person, 50% fewer of the IgE molecules bonded with the altered proteins. This is important for a few reasons. Even though this isn't the first experiment to attempt this, it is the first that uses a compound generally regarded as safe (GRAS) to disrupt the protein structure of the allergen. It is also important because unlike other treatments, it is aimed at treating the food, not the person. Lastly, its success shows the potential for reducing or possibly even eliminating the binding of IgE to food allergens, the root of the allergic response.

For now results show a allergy-reduced nut, which isn't as helpful a non-allergenic one. However, these results at least point towards the possibility of this as a solution. What's up next for researchers? Modifying whole cashews then ensuring the cashews still taste they way they should! Until then, avoidance remains the best option for most dealing with severe food allergies.

To read the full abstract of the research.

For more information on food allergies.

Author: K. Gilmore

Posted by kevvyg on Thursday, July 24, 2014
Vaccines have often been the subject of potential treatments for allergies, and as we've discussed before, a UK firm, Circassia, has been through several stages of testing a vaccine for cat allergies. Research recently released by a team working at the University of Iowa's College of Pharmacy takes the idea of an allergy vaccine and puts a new twist on it. It's this novel approach that is not only showing positive results but providing new hope for the tens of millions that cope with the dust mite allergy on a daily basis.

New Dust Mite Vaccine on the Horizon?Similar to the mechanism used with successful cancer vaccines, the new dust mite vaccine uses an adjuvant (an agent that enhances the body's immune response) in addition to the antigen (the substance that actually induces the immune system to produce antibodies). The way this works is a package (of the adjuvant and antigen) is introduced to a patient. The adjuvant essentially raises the alarm, calling the immune system forward to what it perceives as an "all hands on deck" situation. The immune system absorbs and disposes of the package, but the tangible result of this is speeding up the adsorption process and increasing the rate of absorption of the vaccine.

In this instance, the adjuvant (CpG) was packaged with the vaccine and given to mice. Not only was the package absorbed 90% of the time but subsequent daily exposure to the dust mite allergen Dust Mites Under a Microscope - The Most Common Allergy & Asthma showed higher production of antibodies and lower rates of lung inflammation. While more research is needed, this outcome is one of the very best that researchers could have hoped for.

With nearly 10% of the population allergic to dust mites, they are easily among the most common allergens on the planet. Often found in mattresses, carpet, upholstered furniture and bedding, dust mites are microscopic pests that feed on dead skin cells. They are one reason why your mattress can double in weight after ten years of use. Millions of these tiny creatures call your mattress home, and it is their tiny decomposing body parts and feces that cause the sneezing, wheezing, congestion, and coughing that are commonly associated with dust mite allergies.

The most common methods of coping with dust mite allergies often include a mix of several things, including allergen avoidance (the use of quality allergy bedding covers or a HEPA air purifier, more frequent cleaning and removal of carpet from the home), medication to the treat the symptoms (most commonly antihistamines), and allergy shots (to increase the tolerance of the allergen). Each of these tackle different aspects of the allergy, and even with promising research such as this, a vaccine or simpler longterm solution is still likely several years away.

Building Blocks - MoleculesFor more information, see the official University of Iowa press release.

Author: K. Gilmore

P.S. Just in case you were wondering what CpG stands for... the "C" is for cytosine triphospate deoxynucleotide. The "G" is for guanine triphosphate deoxynucleotide, and the "p" is for the phosphodiester that links the two nucleotides. You may recognize cytosine and guanine. They are two of the four bases of DNA (along with adenine and thymine), and that concludes today's biology lesson!

Posted by R. Power on Monday, February 10, 2014
Immunotheraphy Treatment Offers Hope for Peanut Allergy SufferersMothers with children who have peanut allergies can find hope for relief in recent allergy studies. In a study recently published in the Lancet, Dr. Andrew Clark and his team conducted clinical trials testing immunotherapy treatments for children with peanut allergies. A treatment group of children with this allergy were fed small yet increasing amounts of peanut flour for a 6 month period. After the treatment, over 80% of the children were able to safely eat the equivalent of 5 peanuts a day, which is at least 25 times the quantity of peanut protein they could tolerate before the experiment. "As kids take an increasing amount, their immune systems start to change," said Dr. Clark. "They can tolerate peanuts more robustly."

Immunotherapy has been a successful form of allergy relief for wasp-sting allergies and grass pollen. At its core, immunotherapy is a long, slow process of reintroducing tiny amounts of a particular allergen to patients. Over time, the amounts of the substance patients ingest or are exposed to increases with that hope of leading to a higher, long term tolerance of the allergen. With regard to peanut allergies, this has been the most successful study so far, and gives hope to parents who are constantly on the lookout for even trace amounts of peanuts that can send the severely allergic into anaphylactic shock. In the future this type of treatment could relieve much of the worry associated with trace amounts of allergens causing severe reactions and help lift many of the precautionary diet restrictions those with food allergies often have to impose.

While we wait for more research, long term test results, and potential FDA approval for this treatment, avoidance remains one of the best options for those dealing with food allergies. Though peanut butter might not be one the menu just yet, here are some Peanut/ nut substitute suggestions without the risk of allergic reactions.
  • Sunflower seed butter
  • Soy nut butter
  • Hummus
All of these substitutes are easily found in local grocery stores, generally near the peanut butters. If any of you readers have suggestions on sunflower seed butter or soy nut butter brands, let me know, I’d love to try!

Author: R. Power

Posted by kevvyg on Tuesday, February 04, 2014
Circassia LTD - SPIRE Treatment - Cat AllergiesThis is a topic we've mentioned before throughout the years and originally back in 2011, a novel treatment for cat allergies that is less invasive, less time consuming and as effective as more traditional allergy shots. British drug maker, Circassia LTD, is currently accepting patients for a phase-three clinical trial with this new treatment. What does this mean for those with cat allergies? Potentially - a lot.

Like traditional allergy shots, the idea behind the treatment is to desensitize people who are allergic to cats. The big difference between this and traditional shots is two-fold. First, the shots are not subcutaneous, meaning they are more shallow and do not go beneath the skin. Second, the length of the proposed treatment would be significantly shorter, four to eight months as opposed to the more traditional three to five years worth of shots. This can not only make the process more convenient but hopefully less costly and invasive.

The current trial is accepting people who have had cat allergies for at least two years, have a cat living at home with them, and are between the ages of 12 and 65. As the largest clinical study of this treatment to date, the CATALYST (Cat Allergy Study) is accepting over 1100 volunteers from seven countries.

For people coping with cat allergies, this could be a dramatic step forward in treatment. Often times allergists recommend removing your cat from the household, and as one of the most common household pets, those with cat allergies often have allergic reactions outside of their own homes. One of the Most Common Household Allergens - Cat DanderCat dander is one of the smallest of common household allergens, and to make matters worse, it's "sticky". This means that in places where cats have been, it's often extremely difficult to remove cat dander since it adheres to walls, furnishings, and flooring, nearly everything in a room. Nearly one in three households have cats. In addition to allergies, there is also a link to asthma reactions and cats, with one study showing over a quarter of asthma attacks being triggered by cat allergen. So, the potential that a shorter, less invasive and successful treatment holds a great deal of hope for the millions with allergies or asthma.

The basis of the treatment is the proprietary ToleroMune technology. Molecules called SPIRES (Synthetic Peptide Immuno-Regulatory Epitopes) generate regulatory T cells. These T cells control the allergic response and stimulate tolerance of specific allergens.

Circassia is also working on a similar treatment for dust mite allergies, and back in September of 2013 they announced results of their phase-two trials. In this study, patients who had received four doses of the treatment over 12 weeks showed significant improvement one year after the start of the trial. This smaller phase-two study will likely in the steps of the cat allergy trials. With success, they will move on to larger, clinical, phase-three trials. In addition dust mites, Circassia has also finished phase-two trials of the same treatment for ragweed and grass allergies.

While we continue to patiently wait and hope, avoidance and more traditional measures, like the use of a high quality HEPA air purifier or antihistamines remain some of the best way to reduce allergic reactions to cat.

For more information on these phase-three clinical trials, contact your local certified allergist or visit the clinicaltrials.gov website

Author: K. Gilmore

Posted by kevvyg on Thursday, December 19, 2013
Owning a dog changes a lot of things for people, but one thing you might not think about is how it changes the dust inside your home. It's true, the composition of the dust in dog owner's home is actually different than that of the dust found in a pet-free home, and researchers believe that exposure to this "dog dust" may actually reduce the development of allergies and asthma in children. Could it be that dogs are proving themselves to be "man's best friend" all over again? And if so, how?

Over the last year or two, researchers have paid closer attention to the microbes living on and in us, and how these things can dramatically affect our lives, particularly when it comes to immune responses. Published this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, new research suggests an interesting link between exposure to dog-associated house dust and the subsequent development of allergic diseases like asthma and allergies, and interestingly enough, at the middle of this research is a very specific type of gut bacteria, Lactobacillus johnsonii.

Lactobacillus johnsonii - Key to Asthma and Allergies?During the our first few years of life, we begin to develop a very diverse microbiome of bacteria (think of a microbiome as a community of bacteria living inside your gastrointestinal system), and from immune responses to metabolism, these tiny inhabitants are proving to be critical in the development of allergic disease. In this instance, researchers tested dog-associated dust exposure as well as simple supplementation of Lactobacillus johnsonii into the gut.

When exposed to the "dog dust", the pre-adult mice showed less response to an airway allergen challenge, fewer activated T cells and reduced Th2 cytokine expression, all key indicators of allergic response. For another set of mice who weren't exposed to the dust, but instead had the numbers of Lactobacillus johnsonii in their gastrointestinal system supplemented orally (think - they gave the mice a Lactobacillus johnsonii probiotic), similar but not as strong results appeared. This second set of mice showed that while increased number of the Lactobacillus johnsonii bacteria in the gut did correlate with fewer allergic reactions and less allergic response, this correlation was much stronger in the mice who were exposed to dog-associated house dust. This seems to show that while that specific microorganism is helpful, a greater diversity in the microbiome also plays a role in immune system development and protection against allergic disease.

The results are just another step in process of unraveling allergic disease, but is a truly critical one for two reasons. First, researchers were able to identify a very specific microorganism that shows a strong link to preventing the development of allergic disease. Secondly, the "dog dust" shows that not only did it lead to increased level of this beneficial microorganism but also helped promote a more diverse array of microbes living in the intestinal system, and that as other research has suggested, this variety is also import in preventing the development of allergic disease.

Undoubtedly, more attention and research will continue, and maybe soon, the link between allergic disease and the tiny microbes around us can become clear enough to begin devising ways to actually reduce the chances of children developing asthma and allergies in the first place! Wouldn't that be something?br>
To read the full PDF of the research or for more condensed abstract.

On a side note, I discovered, Nestle (the food company, which consequently has a research facility in Switzerland) is responsible for the genetic sequencing of this bacterium, Lactobacillus johnsonii and uses it in some of its probiotic products.

Author: K. Gilmore

Posted by R. Power on Friday, October 04, 2013
Typically, a research piece about botulism would fall outside of the scope of topics we cover, but with this most recent article's focus on vacuum cleaners and the suggestion that they maybe be potential vectors for disease (like botulism), we found this noteworthy. Yes, you read that right, a possible link between your vacuum cleaner and botulism. Most people think of vacuums as a tool to get rid of carpet frizz, dust, pet hair, stale crumbs under the coffee table, and the occasional gummy worm. They leave our carpets refreshed and clean feeling, and hardwood floors walkable for the bare feet again. But what we can't see or feel is what Caroline Duchaine and her research team from the Queensland University of Technology and Laval University wanted to study.

Vacuum cleaners can release large concentrations of particles, both in their exhaust air and from resuspension of settled dust (Duchaine et al. 2013). The aim of this study was to evaluate particles emitted into the air from various vacuum cleaners. Tests and measurements were made based on dust inside dust bags or dust bins (some were bagless) and from air emitted from the machine while in use. Clostridium botulinum Under a MicroscopeDuchaine and her team quantified how much bacteria and mold could be found within these tests with a particular focus on Clostridium botulinum, Salmonella spp and Penicillium/Aspergillus. While Salmonella is fairly commonly known, the other two are related to botulism and mold, respectively. For infants/toddlers and those with allergies or compromised immunity, this study can be somewhat worrisome.

There have been previous studies on vacuum cleaners that have established that dust bags can be a reservoir for certain types of microbes, and in one particular instance during the 1950's vacuums have gotten attention for this, as a dust bag was the sole source of a Salmonella outbreak amongst infants in a hospital ward.

Before, you toss your vacuum, consider some of the findings on this study. No appreciable levels of the microorganisms, with the exception of mold spores (which varied more widely in terms of measurable amounts), was found in the emissions. While there were some present, the concentration was extremely low. In the dust bag though, the story was a bit different. Concentrations of the different microbes found were fairly consistent, regardless of brand (of vacuum), and this leads researchers to believe that "vacuum emissions could potentially lead to short and more intense bioaerosol exposures than those due to resuspension of settled dust" given the emission rate of most vacuums.

At this point, it is likely worth noting a couple things. First, brands of the vacuum cleaners used were not disclosed. The near two dozen units were collected from the homes of staff and students at the university. The age of the vacuums tested ranged 6 months to 22 years and the prices from $75 to $800 (AUD - Australian), and each vacuum was tested as it arrived. Additionally, samples could not be obtained from all the units involved. A little over half of the models tested produced measurable results, in terms of emissions and dust bag content. The next thing to keep in mind is this. For test purposes, researchers used HEPA filter air through the vacuums, to ensure uniformity but also to introduce as pure of a medium as possible.

This was an interesting research topic, since dust is often overlooked as a conglomerate of debris with no life or benefit. But here we have live microorganisms amongst nonliving material. This could also shed some light onto what kind of vacuum do you want to purchase. If this blog has got you thinking about switching your vacuum to something a little more vacuum sealed, here are few things to consider.

Filtration matters - The fact that researchers used HEPA filtered air in their tests is telling, particularly when you compare it to the size of some of the microbes examined. Mold spores typically range in size from 3 to 40 microns while Clostridium botulinum, a rod-shaped microbe, can be .5-2 microns wide by 1.6 to 22 microns long. Certified HEPA filters capture 99.97% of particles 0.3 microns and larger.

Self Sealing Dust Bag, Automatically Seals When You Open the CanisterVacuums With a Bag Should Be Better - The entire point of the research piece was to focus on bioaerosols that vacuums can create and emit throughout the home. What is the point of trapping microbes only to expose yourself to them when you empty the dust bin?

Particularly Sensitive Groups, Pay Heed to What You Clean With - You often get what you pay for, and not all vacuums marketed as "HEPA" are equal. Some have been independently tested and certified (like Miele or Dyson), and other haven't. Even if you decide to pay for a vacuum with high end filtration, you are likely selling yourself short if you then use cheaper, aftermarket replacement dust bags or filters.

Lastly, On the Microscopic Level, Seals Matter - Vacuums that features seals to prevent air leakage and those that have dust bags that seal when you go to remove them are going to be advantageous.

Although this research does shed some light on potential bacterial exposure, don't fret because these types of infections are very rare. Overall, this statement from the study says a lot, "The vacuum characteristics here are likely to be the main predictor of emission, rather than dust content." However, if you're in a position where you have to crash on the floor at a friends or grandmas... you may want to consider a blowup mattress!

To read the full research article.

Author: R. Power

Posted by kevvyg on Thursday, July 11, 2013
An article recently published by a group of Swedish researchers calls into question some of the zeal over fatty acids in our diet. With the seemingly endless parade of ads for supplements rich in antioxidants and fatty acids, this latest research piece demonstrates a link between high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and an increased risk of the development of allergies.

Common Source of Fatty Acids - FishPolyunsaturated fatty acids is a broad category that includes many compounds, including the most commonly known Omega 3 (n-3) as well as the lesser known Omega 6 (n-6) and Omega 9 (n-9) fatty acids. The role these acids play in the human diet is complex and still continues to evolve, though Omega 3 and others are most commonly associated with anti-inflammatory properties.

Studies over the last few decades have shown a general lack of these compounds in the western diet and associated it with an increase in inflammatory diseases such as heart disease, Type 2 diabetes, COPD and even asthma. Omega 3 fatty acids are most commonly found in fish oils as well as some plant oils, and as a more recent trend, have been appearing in increasing amounts on store shelves, as dietary supplements. More recent research blurs the lines a bit by suggesting that things like Omega 3 may not be the miracle cure all the hype would lead you to believe, yet most concede that while the positives may not be as grand as originally billed, there are few drawbacks.

This latest piece of research builds upon a piece originally published in 2008 that produced similar results but on a smaller scale. In this Swedish study published in PLOS One, roughly 800 children were chosen from a population based group of 1228 born in the same year. From this group, samples of the umbilical cord serum were taken then analyzed and compared with standardized allergy test results taken over the course of the next 13 years.

Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acid Molecule - Omega 3The results showed that in children at age 13 demonstrated higher rates of respiratory allergies than those whose mothers had lower levels of PUFAs at birth. Not only did children with respiratory allergies exhibit this link but so did children who suffered from chronic skin rashes. Those who exhibited higher rates of allergies also had lower levels of mono-unsaturated fats found in the cord blood sample. So to simplify this - Higher levels of Omega 3 and Omega 6 fatty acids found in the cord blood correlated with higher rates of respiratory allergies and chronic skin rashes (think eczema), and it did not matter if the mother had a history of allergies or not. The correlation rates were still higher regardless of maternal allergy history.

So what does all this mean? For now, not much. This research piece is just another step along the way of understanding the origins of allergic disease. Though researchers demonstrated this correlation, what they could not determine was the mechanism behind this. The working theory is that the PUFAs dampen inflammation and the immune activation process, the same process that is thought to "train" an infants immune system to determine is harmful and what is not. This seems to fit since much of allergic disease is the immune system's overreaction to harmless "allergens." Further research is still needed to discover what the exact mechanism behind this is as well how to approach the consumption of PUFAs during pregnancy.

To read the full research article.

Author: Kevin Gilmore

Posted by kevvyg on Wednesday, April 24, 2013
Circassia Ltd. - Company Behind the Cat Allergy VaccineBack in 2011, we posted a blog about a vaccine for cat allergies, and at that time, it discussed the Phase II trials of the vaccine. Well, two years later, the results are in, they look promising, and Phase III is about to begin.

Nearly two years ago, more than 200 cat allergy sufferers took part in the second phase trials which involved four doses of the vaccine, ToleroMune®, over the course of 12 weeks. In the fall of 2012, the company responsible for the study, Circassia, released initial results of the patients who returned to be exposed to the cat allergen and reassessed. Then in February of 2013, they announced full results of this double-blind, randomized study.

The results of this stage of human trials continued to show the same promise that began about a decade ago - the development of a vaccine against cat allergies. Those who received the actual vaccine (and not the placebo) continued to show sustained improvement when reassessed two years after the trial began. With this major milestone, Phase III trials have already started.

Got Cat Allergies?During this last stage of the trials, 1200 participants are involved in what will ultimately be another two year study that is broader and more in-depth. Upon completion in 2015. The vaccine could potentially be available shortly after the completion of this final phase in 2015. For the tens of millions of cat allergy sufferers, this novel approach represents a more longterm solution particle allergies, and ultimately, this type of development could lead to greater understanding of allergies and bring us one step closer to a cure.

In addition to their work on a cat allergy vaccine, Circassia has also started testing on similar treatments for grass and dust mite allergies.

Author: Kevin G.

Posted by kevvyg on Friday, February 22, 2013
Viruses, bacteria, and germs... they seem like a terrifying lot sometimes, particularly when the evening news shows stories of salmonella food poisoning, some ultra rare microbes with devastating effects or a story about how research on the mutating the Avian flu virus to affect people will continue. For all the negatives we hear day in and day out about the microscopic organisms, millions of them are on our skin and even inside of us at any given time. As science focuses more on how they interact with our bodies and effect our health, the picture of a positive relationship is becoming much clearer.

Over the last few months new studies have shown that bacteria in our digestive system play a key role in everything from losing weight and fighting colds to lowering cholesterol and even alleviating asthma. In addition to the longer known relationship between bacteria in our GI tract and digestion, new research is showing a symbiotic relationship on many levels.

The lungs have long been thought to be sterile, devoid of the types of microorganisms that are so commonly found in the digestive system. A recent study by the Cardiff University of Medicine has revealed that not only was that assumption wrong, but that some of the organisms found in the lungs may play a key role in whether or not a person develops asthma.

Different Species and Concentrations of Fungi Found in Lungs of With over 100 different types of fungi found in sputum samples, the study showed differences in not only the types but also the number of fungal species found in samples from asthmatic and control patients. For asthmatic samples certain fungal species were found that were either not found or found in much lower numbers in the control group - Psathyrella candolleana and Malassezia pachydermatis are just two. The reverse was also true for control patients. Systenostrema alba and Eremothecium sinecaudum were found in healthy patients and were either not found in asthmatics or found in much lower numbers.

While the study of numbers, types and more importantly the role of fungal species in the lungs is still in its infancy, it offers a new avenue of study in terms of the development and treatment of asthma.

To read the full text of the study.

Author: K. Gilmore

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